Animal health and disease control

State veterinarians (SV) assisted by animal health technicians (AHT) at eight state veterinary offices throughout the province are responsible for surveillance, control and eradication of animal diseases.

Regular testing, monitoring and surveillance are conducted on livestock, ostriches, poultry and pet animals for diseases such as bovine tuberculosis, bovine Brucellosis, rabies and sheep scab and trade-sensitive diseases such as foot and mouth disease and mad cow disease.

These actions play a major role to provide disease-free guarantees for exports of animals and animal products. The province exports more than 90% of the country’s ostrich meat and other products generated by the ostrich industry. Intensive surveillance for Newcastle disease and Avian influenza and a registration system on ostrich export farms is conducted in several of the state veterinary areas.

A serum data bank has been established to provide scientific evidence on the occurrence or absence of animal diseases. The province is free of the major trade-sensitive diseases such as foot and mouth disease and also has the only African horse sickness free zone in the country from where horses are accepted for export worldwide.

The epidemiology section of Western Cape Veterinary Services is tasked with assisting State Veterinarians during outbreak campaign. Epidemiology also encompasses the design of surveillance programs for various animal diseases and assists in determining the status of diseases in the Western Cape Province. The section maintains animal surveillance databases as well as information on the animal census. It also publishes a monthly newsletter with pertinent epidemiological information which can be used by private veterinarians as an information source.

State veterinarians are responsible for training and education on both a formal and informal basis. Formal training is provided through the Elsenburg Agricultural Training Institute to students pursuing a Bachelors degree in Agriculture in the form of subjects on animal health as well as a registered bovine artificial insemination course. Animal Health Technicians (AHTs) also complete the Tuberculosis and Brucellosis component of their studies under the supervision of a state veterinarian and experienced AHT. Informal training is given to veterinary science students during their studies to expose them to the work of a state veterinarian.

The control animal health technician (CAHT) in each state veterinary office monitors and oversees the work of the other AHTs and also mentors AHT students during their final year of training which is an experiential training year.

 

Buffalo Movements
In terms of Regulation 20 of the Animal Disease Regulations, a movement permit is required for all movement of live buffalo in all Provinces of South Africa.   The new buffalo Veterinary Procedural Notice (VPN) is available here. The applicable addendums are available here.

Controlled Diseases

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals and has the potential to cause severe economic loss.

The severity of clinical lesions caused by FMD virus depends on the host species, breed and immune status, and the virus strain. Blister-like lesions form between two and eight days after the animal was infected. The blisters then burst to form erosions or ulcers. In cattle, the lesions occur usually on the top surface of the tongue, though they can occur elsewhere in the mouth and the pain can cause salivation. Lesions on the feet occur between the claws, at the junction of hoof and skin, and on the bulbs of the heel, causing lameness. Teat lesions occur in cows and the pain caused can lead to difficulties in milking and secondary mastitis. In young domestic animals, death can occur suddenly due to damage to the heart muscle.

The pain caused by FMD lesions leads to poor growth and production which, together with the highly contagious nature of the virus, is why there are severe trade restrictions on infected countries.

Infected animals start shedding virus, mostly in saliva, before they show clinical signs and can spread the disease directly to other animals or indirectly via animal products, equipment, human contact, feed, and vehicles. The virus is fairly resistant to sunlight and survives long periods in bone marrow, lymph nodes and blood in large blood vessels.

Livestock owners and producers need to maintain sound biosecurity practices to prevent the introduction and spread of the virus. Measures that are recommended at the farm level include:

  • only add new animals of known origin and health status to existing stock
  • only allow  access to livestock by people and equipment with a known low risk of transferring disease
  • maintain the sanitation of livestock pens, buildings, vehicles, and equipment
  • monitor and report livestock illness to the local State Veterinarian
  • ensure appropriate disposal of manure and dead carcasses

    For Frequently Asked Questions and Answers click here


Veterinary Services, therefore, advises the following:

  1. That buyers obtain a Farmer/ Owner Declaration (Article 8/ livestock removal certificate and FMD declaration) before purchasing any livestock from a seller. Available here
  2. That people transporting livestock adhere to Article 6 of the Stock Theft Act (Act No 57 of 1959) and ensure that a completed document of identification travels with the animals. Available here
  3. For movements of animals leaving the province, the owner may request a private veterinarian to perform a clinical examination on the animals and issue a Veterinary Health Certificate at their own cost. State Veterinarians will not issue permits/letters  for the movement of animals out of the province

 Links to other related websites:

  • To access the link to the National Animal Health Forum Website, click here
  • To access the link to the National Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD) website, click, here
  • To access the link to the National Directorate Animal Health website, click here

References:

  1. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Government of Western Australia https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/livestock-biosecurity/foot-and-mouthdisease-recognise-and-report-signs
Section 9 of the Animal Diseases Act (Act 35 of 1984), prescribes control measures for keeping and moving ostriches and as such, the Veterinary Services programme is integrally involved with the following activities:
  • ​Registration of approved ostrich compartments
  • Official control of registered ostrich compartments
  • Movement of ostriches between registered ostrich compartments

For forms and procedures relating to these activities, please contact the South African Ostrich Business Chamber (SAOBC)

Read more about the danger of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis spread at auctions and shows!

Bovine Brucellosis

Brucellosis is a zoonosis which means that it is an infectious disease which can be transmitted from animals to humans. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. It is primarily a disease of domestic animals (goats, pigs, cattle, dogs, etc) and humans and has a worldwide distribution, mostly now in developing countries.

Cattle affected with Brucella abortus have high incidences of abortions or weak calves, arthritic joints, and retention of the fetal membranes.

Bovine Tuberculosis

Bovine TB is also a zoonosis. It is a chronic wasting disease that causes considerable production losses and is caused by Mycobacterium bovis.

Click here to read more about Bovine Tuberculosis

The Animal Health subprogramme of Veterinary Services conducts TB and Brucellosis testing as part of national surveillance for these 2 important diseases. If a farm is diagnosed positive for either of these diseases, state officials will step in and control the disease which will involve culling infected animals and testing until the herd is once again clean. Brucellosis pamphlet A5 v2.pdf

Rabies is caused by a virus that can infect all mammals including humans (a zoonosis). The disease is spread to humans by contact with infected animals. Although rabies occurs in several wild animal species, transfer to humans occurs via the bite of a domestic dog or cat in more than 90% of cases. The symptoms of someone infected with rabies include fever, nervous symptoms, anxiety, inability to swallow and paralysis. In the final phase of the disease, the body shuts down and goes into a coma which is followed by death.

Once the rabies virus has entered the nervous system there is no cure! The only way to prevent the virus from entering the nervous system is to clean and disinfect the bite wound immediately and to receive very specific medical attention in the form of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) so rather take the advice of the saying “prevention is better than cure”.

Click here to read the OIE disease card on rabies.

The Animal Health Technicians of Veterinary Services hold regular campaigns in various areas and on farms to vaccinate dogs and cats and to create awareness about rabies. Not only does Veterinary Services deliver this service free of charge, but they bring it right to the community and agri-workers, where it is most convenient for people who do not have the means to transport their animals to the local vet.

The African Horse Sickness vaccination season runs from June to October each year. 

“African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease of Equidae (horses, donkeys, mules, and zebra) caused by the African Horse Sickness virus which is a virus of the genus Orbivirus belonging to the family Reoviridae. AHS is not directly contagious but is spread by the Culicoides midge.

South Africa is endemic for AHS which means that it commonly occurs throughout the country. The Western Cape contains the only AHS free zone in the country and therefore the only place that horse exports can take place from is Cape Town.  As a result of this AHS control is strictly regulated in the province.

AHS is spread by biting midges and the vaccine used is a live virus vaccine. The cause of previous outbreaks of AHS in the AHS controlled area (AHS CA) has been identified as the spread of the vaccine virus between horses by these Culicoides midges. This is the reason why the vaccination period has been restricted to the period when the midges are least active in the AHS CA.

Consequently, African horse sickness vaccinations are now controlled in the AHS protection, surveillance and free zones of the Western Cape. The vaccination season in the AHS CA in the Western Cape is legislated by the National Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) to take place between 1 June and 31 October each year. Vaccination against AHS for horses in the AHS Surveillance and Free zones may only occur with written permission from State Vet Boland, and this permission can only be granted for vaccinations that are planned within this period.

Applications for permission to vaccinate against African Horse Sickness open in March every year so that permission can be granted timeously by State Vet Boland before vaccination can begin annually on 1st June in the African Horse Sickness Controlled area (Surveillance and Free zones) in the Western Cape.

Only registered AHS vaccines may be used during this time and it is illegal to use an unregistered vaccine or for a private person to vaccinate their horse in the AHS CA. All AHS vaccinations in the AHS CA must be done by a veterinarian. Permission must be applied for by your private veterinarian who will send an application to vaccinate@myhorse.org.za  

Responsible vaccination against AHS decreases the risk of outbreaks in our region, which is to the benefit of our local horse population and increases international market access for South African horses. The public’s adherence to these requirements assists us to ensure there are no further outbreaks, either from the use of vaccine outside the permitted times or from the illegal movement of an infected horse into the area.

For more information visit Stopover Quarantine Protocol

Please take note of the following contact details where relevant:

For applications to move equids into and within the AHS controlled area and enquiries related to equid movement, please contact move@myhorse.org.za 

For applications to vaccinate equines against AHS in the AHS controlled area and enquiries related to vaccination in the AHS controlled area please contact vaccinate@myhorse.org.za

For information about the identification of horses, please contact passport@myhorse.org.za

For Pre-notification of movement please contact prenote@myhorse.org.za

For AHS case reporting or information on sample collection for AHS confirmation and testing please contact your local state veterinarian and/or results@myhorse.org.za

For queries regarding the registration of properties in terms of the Animal Diseases Act 1984 (Act no 35 of 1984) for the keeping of zebra or for movement of zebra within and into the AHS controlled area please contact zebra@myhorse.org.za  

To report a transgression within the AHS controlled area relating to illegal movement, vaccination or any other equid related law enforcement matter within or relating to the AHS controlled area please contact regulate@myhorse.org.za

For all other enquiries please contact your local state veterinarian. 

The Department would like to thank all horse owners, veterinarians and everyone else involved in the equine industry for partnering with us to get direct exports to the EU reinstated.

State Vet Offices

 

The Beaufort West State Veterinary Office is located in Upper Blythe Street. The two state veterinarians together with five animal health technicians (AHTs) are responsible for Beaufort West, Prince Albert, Laingsburg and Murraysburg.

Contact details

Dr. Jaco Pienaar

Telephone: 023 414 2154
Fax: 023 414 3980
Email: Jaco.Pienaar@westerncape.gov.za

 

The Boland State Veterinary Office is located at the Head office of the Department of Agriculture at Elsenburg. The two state veterinarians together with the control Animal Health Technician and five animal health technicians (AHTs) are responsible for the greater Cape Town area, Paarl, Wellington, Franschhoek, Stellenbosch, Somerset West, and Gordon’s Bay.

Contact information:

Office reception
Telephone: 021 808 5253
E-mail: SVBoland@elsenburg.com
Dr. Gary Buhrmann
Gary.Buhrmann@westerncape.gov.za

Telephone: 021 808 5026  
Dr. Vivien Malan
Vivien.Malan@westerncape.gov.za
Telephone: 021 808 5028

The George State Veterinary Office is located in Varing Street. The state veterinarian together with one control animal health technician and five animal health technicians (AHT) are responsible for the magisterial districts of George, Riversdal, Mossel Bay, Uniondale, and Knysna.

Contact details:

Dr Leana Janse van Rensburg
Telephone: 044 803 3771
Email: Leana.JanseVanRensburg@westerncape.gov.za

or

SVGeorge@westerncape.gov.za

 
The Malmesbury State Veterinary Office is located on the corner of Spoorweg and Munisipale Street.
 
The state veterinarian together with the control animal health technician and four animal health technicians (AHTs) are responsible for the magisterial districts of Malmesbury, Moorreesburg, Hopefield, Vredenburg, Piketberg, Tulbagh, and Ceres.

Contact details:

Dr. Michael Swart

Telephone: 022 433 8910
Email: Michael.Swart@westerncape.gov.za

The Oudtshoorn State Veterinary Office is located at 39 Van der Riet Street.

The State Veterinarian together with the Control Animal Health Technician and three AHTs are responsible for the Klein Karoo and Kannaland regions, which include the towns of Oudtshoorn, De Rust, Calitzdorp, Vanwyksdorp, and Ladismith.

Contact details:

Dr. Cathy Fox
Cathy.Fox@westerncape.gov.za
Telephone: 044 203 9443/5

The Swellendam State Veterinary Office is located on Voortrekker Street.

The state veterinarian together with one control animal health technician and five animal health technicians (AHT) are responsible for the magisterial districts of Swellendam, Bredasdorp, Caledon, and Heidelberg.

Contact details:

Dr. Christi Kloppers
Christi.Kloppers@westerncape.gov.za
Telephone: 028 425 4850

The Vredendal State Veterinary Office is located in Matzikama Street.
 
The state veterinarian together with three animal health technicians (AHTs), they are responsible for the magisterial districts of Vredendal, Clanwilliam, and Vanrhynsdorp.

Contact details:

State Veterinarian: Dr. Chanel Lombard 
Telephone: 027 201 3510 
Email: Chanel.Lombard@westerncape.gov.za

The Worcester State Veterinary Office is located in 30 Van Arckel Street.

The state veterinarian together with one animal health technician (AHT) is responsible for the magisterial districts of Worcester, Ceres, Montagu, Robertson, Touwsrivier and Tulbagh.

Contact details:

Dr Christi Kloppers
Telephone:  0218085059
Email: Christi.Kloppers@westerncape.gov.za

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